Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Previously Rana tigrina) | Indian Bull Frog

External morphology of frog (Hoplobatrachus tigerinus)

The Indian bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus tigerinus) is a large and robust species of frog native to South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan. Previously its scientific name was Rana tigrina.

External Morphology of Frog

The body of a frog is divided into three parts and they are the head, trunk, and limbs. The head contains the mouth, snout, eyes, nostrils, and tympanum. The trunk is the middle part of the body connected with the head. Frog has two forelimbs and two hindlimbs.

Digestive System of Frog

The digestive system of Hoplobatrachus tigerinus consists of two parts: the Alimentary canal and digestive glands. The digestive system of a frog is complete as the alimentary canal starts from the mouth and ends at the cloacal aperture. The alimentary canal consists of the mouth, buccal cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, intestine, and cloaca. The liver and pancreas are the main digestive glands.

Respiratory System of Frog

In the larval stage, frogs perform their respiration through external gills but after developing into adults, they perform their respiration through lungs. In the adult stage, frogs can perform their respiration in three different ways. They are – 

  1. Cutaneous Respiration
  2. Buccal Respiration &
  3.  Pulmonary Respiration (through lungs).

Blood Circulatory System of Frog

The blood circulatory system or circulatory system or the blood vascular system of frogs consists of blood, heart, arteries, and veins. The blood of the frog consists of blood plasma and blood corpuscles. There are the erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes as the blood corpuscles. Frog’s heart is three chambered; two auricles and a ventricle. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. The venous system collects blood and returns it to the heart.

Nervous System of Frog

The nervous system of a frog consists of three main parts:-

  1. The central nervous system
  2. The peripheral nervous system &
  3. The sympathetic nervous system.

The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of the cranial nerves and spinal nerves. The sympathetic nervous system controls the involuntary action of the body like heart rate etc.

The Urinogenital System of Frog

The urinogenital system of a frog consists of the excretory system and the reproductive system of a frog. The excretory system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and cloaca. The male reproductive system consists of the testis, vasa efferentia, and urinogenital duct. The female reproductive system consists of ovaries and oviducts.

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