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Skin and Exoskeleton of Columba livia | Pigeon | Diagram

Columba livia is the scientific name of the Indian Rock Pigeon. In this article, we will learn about the Skin and Exoskeleton of Columba livia. They are Aves under the Columbiformes order.


Skin of Columba livia

skin of Columba livia(pigeon)

fig: Skin of pigeon

Skin of pigeon is dry. The skin of Columba livia is divided into two parts. They are the epidermis and dermis.

1. Epidermis

      • Epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin of pigeon.
      • The epidermis again composed of three layers. They are the outermost layer or epitrichium, the innermost layer or stratum germinativum or stratum malpighii and the middle layer or stratum corneum.
      • The outermost layer of epidermis or epitrichium is composed of a single row of flattened delicate cells.
      • The middle layer of epidermis or stratum corneum is horny and protective.
      • The innermost layer of epidermis or stratum germinativum is made up of large and cylindrical cells.

2. Dermis

      • The innermost layer of the skin of Columba livia is the dermis.
      • It consists of muscle fibres, nerve fibres, blood capillaries and connective tissue.
      • Cutaneous glands are few or absent except the preen gland or uropygial gland.
      • The preen gland is located dorsally at the base of the tail.
      • The secretion of oil from the preen gland is used for lubricating and dressing the feathers.

Exoskeleton of Columba livia

Exoskeletons of birds are claws, beak, spurs, webs, scales and feathers. Exoskeletons of Columba livia are claws, beak, scales and feathers.

1. Claws and Beak

      • Both claws and beak are horny exoskeletal derivatives.
      • Different birds have differently modified claws and beak.
      • The pigeon uses the beak during ingestion, preening the feathers and fighting.
      • The pigeon uses its claws in perching and walking.

2. Spurs

      • Spurs are not found in pigeons.
      • It is a bony projection of tarsometatarsus in the male of certain species of birds.
      • It is sharp and pointed.
      • Birds use their spurs during fighting.

3. Webs

      • Webs are not found in pigeons.
      • Webs are found only in the aquatic birds.
      • Webs are modified folds of the integument on the feet.
      • Birds use their webs while they are swimming.

4. Scales

      • Scales are present on the legs.
      • They are not dermal scales like those of fishes.
      • The scales of birds are like reptilian type.

5. Feathers

      • Columba livia has beautiful feathers.
      • Almost the whole body is covered with feathers.
      • It is a unique characteristics feature of birds which does not occur in any other group of animals.

———– THE END ———–

Read More:

  1. External Morphology of Columba livia | Pigeon | Diagram
  2. Muscular System of Columba livia | Pigeon | Diagram
  3. Digestive System of Columba livia | Pigeon | Diagram | Note
  4. Air Sacs of Pigeon | Bird | Columba livia | Diagram | Note
  5. Feathers in Pigeon | Columba livia | Diagram
  6. General Characters of All Classes of Vertebrates.
  7. The Sound Producing Organ in Birds | Syrinx | Diagram | Note


  1. Columba livia wiki
  2. Columba livia image

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